Penn State University Libraries:Include a citation that is in-text

Making use of In-text Citation

Add a citation that is in-text you make reference to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another supply. For almost any in-text citation in your paper, there should be a matching entry in your guide list.

APA citation that is in-text utilizes mcdougal’s final title plus the 12 months of publication, as an example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, are the web page number too, as an example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as for instance sites and e-books which have no web page figures, make use of paragraph quantity. Additional information on citing sources without pagination is provided regarding the APA Style web site.

Example paragraph with in-text citation

A researchers that are few the linguistics industry allow us training programs made to enhance indigenous speakers’ power to understand accented message (Derwing, Rossiter, & Munro, 2002; Thomas, 2004). Their training strategies depend on essay writing the study described above indicating that comprehension improves with contact with speech that is non-native. Derwing et al. (2002) carried out their training with pupils getting ready to be social employees, but observe that other experts who make use of non-native speakers could take advantage of a comparable system.


Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Training indigenous speakers to be controlled by foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23(4), 245-259.

Thomas, H. K. (2004). Training approaches for enhancing audience’ comprehension of foreign-accented speech (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.

Citing Website Pages In Text

Cite website pages in text while you would any kind of supply, making use of the author and date if understood. In the event that writer just isn’t understood, utilize the title plus the date given that in-text citation (for long games simply make use of the very first few terms). Your in-text citation should lead your audience to your matching entry in the guide list. For sources without any date usage n.d. (for no date) instead of the 12 months: (Smith, n.d.). Listed here are samples of making use of citation that is in-text website pages.

Web site with author:

In-text citation

Role-play will help young ones discover processes for dealing with bullying (Kraiser, 2011).

Guide entry

Kraizer, S. (2011). Preventing bullying. Retrieved from

Website without any writer:

In-text citation

The word Nittany Lion ended up being created by Penn State football player Joe Mason in 1904 (“All things Nittany,” 2006).

Guide entry

Things Nittany. (2006). Retrieved from

Website without any date:

In-text citation

Developing regular routines, such as for instance workout, will help survivors of catastrophes get over traumatization (United states Psychological Association APA, n.d.).

Guide entry

United States Emotional Association. (n.d.). Recovering emotionally from catastrophe. Retrieved from

General Gu >

In-text recommendations should instantly stick to the name, term, or expression to that they are straight appropriate, in the place of showing up at the conclusion of long clauses or sentences. In-text sources should precede punctuation marks always. Listed here are samples of making use of in-text citation.

Author’s title in parentheses:

One research discovered that the absolute most crucial take into account understanding non-native speech is knowledge of the subject (Gass & Varonis, 1984).

Author’s title element of narrative:

Gass and Varonis (1984) discovered that the many essential take into account understanding non-native speech is knowledge of the subject.

Group as writer: First citation: (United states Psychological Association APA, 2015) Subsequent citation: (APA, 2015)

Multiple works: (separate each make use of semi-colons)

Studies have shown that hearing an accent that is particular comprehension of accented message as a whole (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).

Direct estimate: (consist of page quantity and put quote markings round the direct estimate)

One research discovered that “the listener’s understanding of the main topics discourse significantly facilitates the interpretation associated with whole message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).

Gass and Varonis (1984) unearthed that “the listener’s understanding of the main topics discourse significantly facilitates the interpretation of this whole message” (p. 85).

Note: For direct quotations in excess of 40 terms, show the estimate being a block that is indented of without quote markings you need to include the writers’ names, 12 months, and web page quantity in parentheses at the conclusion for the estimate. For instance:

This implies that understanding of nonnative message as a whole, even though it is actually much less essential an adjustable as subject familiarity, may certainly involve some impact. That is, previous experience with nonnative message, such as that gained by paying attention into the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)

Functions Multiple Authors

APA style has chosen guidelines for citing functions by numerous writers. Utilize the guidelines that are following regulate how to precisely cite functions numerous writers in text.

Note: When making use of numerous writers’ names in your narrative, instead of in parentheses, constantly spell the word out and. For numerous writers’ names within a parenthetic citation, usage &.

One writer: (Field, 2005)

Two writers: (Gass & Varonis, 1984)

3 to 5 authors: First citation: (Tremblay, Richer, Lachance, & Cote, 2010) Subsequent citations: (Tremblay et al., 2010)

Six or even more writers: (Norris-Shortle et al., 2006)